6.3 Progressivism and Reform

Select and evaluate major public and social issues emerging from the changes in industrial, urban, and global America during this period; analyze the solutions or resolutions developed by Americans, and their consequences (positive/negative – anticipated/unanticipated).


The Gilded Age and Progressive Reform, Chapter 19, Section 1.
The Progressive Presidents, Chapter 19, Section 2.
The Rights of Women, Chapter 19, Section 3.
Struggles for Justice, Chapter 19, Section 4.
See also the Need to Read for 6.3.1, 6.3.2, and 6.3.3.

6.3.1 Social Issues

Describe at least three significant problems or issues created by America’s industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930 (e.g., urban and rural poverty and blight, child labor, immigration, political corruption, public health, poor working conditions, and monopolies).

6.3.2 Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform

Analyze the causes, consequences, and limitations of Progressive reform in the following areas
  • major changes in the Constitution, including 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments
  • new regulatory legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Sherman and Clayton Anti-Trust Acts)
  • the Supreme Court’s role in supporting or slowing reform
  • role of reform organizations, movements and individuals in promoting change (e.g., Women’s Christian Temperance Union, settlement house movement, conservation movement, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Eugene Debs, W.E.B. DuBois, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell)
  • efforts to expand and restrict the practices of democracy as reflected in post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and immigrants

6.3.3 Women’s Suffrage

Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women’s rights, including the work of important leaders (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) and the eventual ratifi cation of the 19th Amendment.

Learning Activity

Complete the table below. Use the 6.3 Worksheet.pages document to help you work independently.
What was the problem?
What was done about it?
How well did it work?

Child Labor
Child labor is work that harms children or keeps them from attending school. Around the world and in the U. S., between rich and poor in recent decades have forced millions of young children out of school and into work
There were a lot of bills and proposals on this before getting ride of it for good. They started with taxing businesses that would use child labor but after ww1 the economy need all the help it could get so they kept the kids in work force after passing a bill to change the work place for kids so it was safer but eventually kids were not allowed to work.
As a whole it worked well but it was a long time before it was officially a law, but the decision was made to keep kids out of work.
Mexicans were legally segregated. Some were even separated within schools. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 11882 kept the Chinese from moving to the United States. People were prejudice against Asians and San Francisco forced Asian students to be segregated.
In 1910, thousands of Mexicans flocked to the United States increasing the population. They were denied good paying jobs and had to settle for the simple jobs.
In the early 1900s, 100,000 Japanese moved to the United States to seek a better life and work on sugar plantations.
In 1907, Roosevelt called for the Gentlemen’s agreement act with Japan which didn’t allow more Japanese workers to enter the U.S.
Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants helped each other out.
Japanese made dry farms profitable and they wound up making lots of money.
There was still a lot of prejudices people and it expanded to a lot more races.
Political Corruption
Business excess were being fed by Political corruption. Government leaders were ignoring the moral and ethical wrongs of trusts and monopolies and other social issues
President Arthur signed the Pendleton Act.

Public Health
The businesses were not providing insurance for there workers.
Laws were passed that made employers to provide health care

Poor Working Conditions
The working conditions were bad and dangerous.
Passed laws that stated that you cannot force workers to work in poor conditions.
To make the working conditions better in the industrial revolution, Congress passed the Factory act of 1819 which limited the hours worked by children to a maximum of 12 hours a day, Factory Act of 1833 which said that children under 9 years couldn’t work in the textile mills and 10 to 13 year olds limited to a 48 hour week, and Factory Act of 1844 which made the maximum number of hours a women could work in a day was 12.
The problem was that the foresters and
miners were taking way too much out.
The foresters were taking the forests out
ecause the towns and people were demanding
it at they thought only about supply and
demand.This cause large areas of forests to be gone and deserted.The miners did the same thing. The stripped the ore from the earth.
Teddy Roosevelt was worried about the
lost of a great forest or mining areas,
so what he did was
geneous. For the forests he created a place
called a national park. This was a place that was protected from any harm. He also formed a group that would plant sapplings into the cut down forests. For the mines he limited them
from mining more ten a certain amount everyday.
This worked very well because when teddy Roosevelt was
worried about the forests he had people plant sapplings back
into the forest that the people just took out. This allowed for more
trees to be taken down without it causing as much of an impact.
They also made national park witch meant they couldn't take or
damage anything within the national parks. They also limited the miners from going over a certain amount in everyday.
Women's Suffrage
Women struggled for equality without significant help from the Progressives.
The Seneca Falls Convention was organized. After the Civil War Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the National Woman Suffrage Association. Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho are the states in the west that accepted voting for women. The Nineteenth Amendment.
It worked very well. Even though women didn't get paid as much by 1990 over 5 million women worked outside their homes. The nineteenth Amendment changed a lot of things for the women. The Amendment opened up new opportunities for women like education.
Monopolies/Unfair Business

Racial/Ethnic/Religious Equality